In this article:
- Genesis R&D Calories vs. 4-4-9
- Use the 4-4-9 method to calculate calories in Genesis R&D
- Methods for determining calories
- How does 4-4-9 work?
- How do the Atwater factors work?
- Comparing Atwater factors to 4-4-9
Genesis R&D Calories vs. 4-4-9
The various ingredients in your Recipes may incorporate more than one of the six acceptable Calorie calculation methods allowed by FDA regulations. Genesis R&D accounts for the variations by adding up the calories of the individual ingredients to determine total Calorie value.
This — plus the fact that when displaying Calories on a Nutrition Facts panel, the Calories value is rounded according to NLEA rounding rules — will lead to some minor discrepancies between what you will see on the label as calculated by Genesis R&D vs. what you will see when you calculate total Recipe calories using the 4-4-9 method.
Either is correct.
If you decide you want Genesis R&D to use the 4-4-9 method instead, you can choose that option.
Use the 4-4-9 method to calculate calories in Genesis R&D
- With your Recipe open, click Edit Label
- Click Nutrient Options
- Expand Calories
- Select 4-4-9 Method.
- Click OK. This Recipe will use the 4-4-9 method to determine calories on the label.
Methods for determining calories
There are six methods for determining Calories in a food: 4-4-9, Atwater factors, 4-4-9 minus insoluble fiber, specific food factors approved by the FDA, bomb calorimetry and using general factors for caloric value of sugar alcohols. These are explained in the CFR, section 101.9(c)(1)(i).
In general, manufacturers use 4-4-9 or 4-4-9 adjusted for fiber, and the USDA uses Atwater Factors. Most of the ingredients in the Genesis R&D database will use one of the three methods mentioned.
How does 4-4-9 work?
4-4-9 is based on the following calculations, which are average conversion factor values:
- Protein grams x 4 = Cals from Protein
- Carbohydrate grams x 4 = Cals from Carbs
- Fat grams x 9 = Cals from Fat
How do the Atwater factors work?
The Atwater system is used for the calculation of the available energy of different food and is more accurate than the 4-4-9 method. Different foods contribute different caloric amounts per gram. For example, 1g of fat from one food may yield 8.4 Calories, while 1g of fat from another food may yield 9.37 Calories. For fat, the values range around 9 Calories, but not exactly 9 Calories. The same concept applies to a gram of Protein or Carbohydrate. A list of Atwater protein, carbs and fat values for a variety of foods can be found here. Generally, using Atwater Factors will result in slightly lower total Calories than using 4-4-9.
Comparing Atwater factors to 4-4-9
Example of Calorie calculations for Great Northern Beans using the 4-4-9 vs Atwater formulas, based on the following:
36 grams beans containing
· 22.2g Carbs
· 7.8g Protein
· 0.26g Fat
· 13.3g Fiber
Using Atwater Factors:
· 22.2g x 4.07 = 90 Cals from Carbs
· 7.8g x 3.47 = 27 Cals from Protein
· 0.26g x 8.37 = 2 Cals from Fat
· Total = 119 Cals
Using 4-4-9 formula:
· 22.2g x 4 = 89 Cals from Carbs
· 7.8g x 4 = 31 Cals from Protein
· 0.26g x 9 = 2 Cals from Fat
· Total = 122 Cals